Voting system of the Russian Federation (elections to the State Duma)

The voting system of the Russian Federation combines several types of electoral systems

In accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, 450 members (deputies) are elected to the State Duma for a term of five years. Deputies are elected by Russian citizens eligible to cast a vote on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.

Elections of members of the State Duma are appointed by the President of the Russian Federation. The decision to call elections shall be made no earlier than 110 days and no later than 90 days before voting day. The voting day is the third Sunday of the month when the term of the previous State Duma expires. The term of the new State Duma starts on the voting date. The last elections during which the State Dima of the 7th convocation was elected were held on September 18, 2016.

Nowadays a mixed voting system is applied in Russia. 225 deputies, this is a half of the total number, are elected by majority voting in single-mandate constituencies (one constituency is one deputy), and the second half is elected by a proportional representation with a 5% barrier in a single federal district.

The number of votes cast for a federal list of candidates is defined as the sum of votes cast in each region of the Russian Federation and abroad. The federal constituency covers the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

Single-mandate constituencies are formed by dividing the total number of voters registered in Russia by 225 (the total number of single-mandate constituencies).

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Voting system
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The decision to nominate a federal list of candidates, as well as to nominate candidates to single-mandate constituencies is taken by secret ballot at a congress of a political party.

A political party has the right to nominate only one candidate in one single-mandate constituency. A Russian citizen is entitled to participate in elections in a single-member constituency as a self-nominated candidate.

A political party that nominates a federal list of candidates is obliged to create its own electoral fund to finance its election campaign.

All candidates have equal rights and equal responsibilities.